Jewellry
gold, enamel and semi-precious stones
Lebanon
Mamluk Period ((1289-1516 A.D.).
1- Necklace, gold
2- Bracelet, gold and semi-precious stone
3- Ring bearing an inscription, gold
4-Necklace gold and enamel
5- Buckle, gold
This jewellry shows the skill of the goldsmiths of the Mamluk Period. These objects combine geometrical and figurative patterns with calligraphy. Different techniques were used in the jewellry production, namely filigree and "repoussÚ" techniques.




Coin, gold
Tyre, Salah-ed-Din al Ayyoubi, Ayyoubid Period
This golden coin was minted in Cairo in 642 H. (1245-1246 A.D.) under the reign of Saladin al Ayyubi. On the obverse, it bears the Shahada and the Souate 9/33; on the reverse, the Basmala.





Baalbek was the first city to fall into the hands of Abu 'Ubayda in 635 A.D. and the Arab conquest of Lebanon was completed in 637 A.D. The expansion of the coastal cities which had slowed down after the earthquakes of the VIth century revived during the Omayyad period. Their harbours and shipyards regained their activity and the hinterland witnessed irrigation works which promoted agriculture. The Omayyad city of 'Anjar bears witness to this revival with its fortifications, streets, shops, palaces and mosque.

Lebanon was directly affected by the various episodes of dynastic changes which brought to power successively Omayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Seljuks, Ayyubids and Mamluks
During this long period, Islam spread and Arabic became the language of the administration. It progressively replaced local dialects.

Between 1099 and 1289, Arab rule was replaced by that of the Crusaders. They built citadelles along the coast, from Tripoli to the land of Tyre, while the inland remained in the hands of the Ayyubids
The offensive of the Mamluk sultan Baibars put an end to this Crusader interlude. Great builders, the Mamluks left a large number of civil and religious buildings: mosques, madrasas, khans, hammams. The mamluk city of Tripoli bears witness to this development of Islamic architecture.








Glazed deep bowls, terracotta
Tyre, 12th-13th c. A.D
Known as sgrafiato, this pottery is slipped, incised and then glazed with various colors. Floral, geometrical and figurative patterns were used for decoration. This ceramic type was found on several Lebanese sites and developped from the Crusades until the Mamluk period.





Jug bearing an arabic inscription : blessing formula, terracotta
Tyre, Mamluk Period
This jug which is decorated with patterns arranged in compartments, is inscribed with popular blessing formula written in a cursive script. This type of inscriptions appear on objects used in everyday life.

`